European Science Journals: EOJNSS, JAELT, more to come...

European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences

Turkish Virtual River in Kurdistan Region-Iraq

Karwan Sabah Hawrami, Azad Jalal Shareef


Growth of population and increased demand on food and water in arid areas like the Middle East is a chronic problem. To overcome water shortage many countries depend on imported virtual water. Kurdistan region, however, is a unique case. The region has more than 30BCM of fresh water for six million people, but it is importing huge amount of virtual water. Turkey has found it’s the best and the nearest market for its virtual water exports in Kurdistan region and South Iraq. The aim of this work is to find the size of imported virtual water into Kurdistan market, Turkey contribution to this market and water footprint in Kurdistan region. Methods of analysing, comparing and description were used. The paper has found that Turkey is reducing water flow of Rivers to Kurdistan region and South Iraq; In contrast, it increases virtual water exports into those two markets. The paper has shown that annually Turkey exports about 7.5 BCM of Virtual water into Kurdistan region-Iraq. In addition, the value of each cubic meter of imported virtual water from Turkey has been estimated. And finally, the paper has explored the volume of water footprint-per person in Kurdistan region which is the third highest in the world. This paper can be mentioned as a first step toward scientific work on virtual water, its value and water footprint in Kurdistan region and Iraq.


Kurdistan Region-Iraq, Turkey, Virtual Water, Water, Water Footprint, Water security, Virtual water Trade & River

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.